Biomass: is a biological organic material, a mass derived from living or recently living organisms (plants, animals and microorganisms living on land or in water), a collection of products of biological origin.
The biomass energy recovery is based on burning, which is a heat-releasing process.
Biomass is the fourth most widely-used energy source in the world after coal, oil and natural gas. Biomass energy coveres 14 % of the total of used energy in the world, and its usage percentage is even higher, 34%, in the developing countries.
Biomass energy sources are the followings:
– by-products and wastes of agricultural crops (corn stover/cob, straw, etc.),
– crops grown for energy purposes (rape, sugar beet, different species),
– biomass originating from animals (manure etc.),
– by-products and wastes of forestry and wood processing (wood chips, trimmings, shawings, sawdust, bark etc.).
The characteristics of biomass as an energy source:
– its renewal happens due to photosynthesis;
– the storing of the energy is achieved during the process of photosynthesis, when light energy from the sun is converted and stored in the form of chemical energy in the organic materials of the plants;
– energy can be recovered without increasing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide;
– significantly less pollution than in the case of fossil energy sources;
– it has a positive impact on rural development, on job creation and the overhaul of our environment.
Biomass as energy source can be used as it follows:
1 Directly: burning without preparation or after preparation.
2 Indirectly: after chemical transformation (liquefaction, gasification), as liquid fuel or combustible gas.
The biomass utilized for energy purposes consists of organic materials: wood and plant wastes or plants grown especially for energy purposes.
The main advantages of alternative energy sources can be sensed in the environment, in rural development, energy politics and waste management:
• It ensures a continuous energy production.
• Reduced pollution (less CO2 emission).
• Improved income generating capacity of the rural population.
• Better environment, the issue of pasture cleaning is solved.
• It can be available everywhere, it is not connected to a deposit.
• It uses agricultural waste.
• Grant possibilities for obtaining the necessary machines.
Biomass boiler, the wood chip boiler
Wood chip boilers are the most low-cost to operate amongst the automatic stokers, A wood chip boiler is a solid-fuel-fired system. Due to their automatic ignition and priming, they are as comfortable to use as gas-fueled systems.
The time one has to spend with the cleaning and maintenance of the boiler depends of course on the boilers trim level and on the used fuel.
It is important to know what kind of conveyor and stoking system we want for the boiler. We have to consider a few criteria:
– how big is the output of the boiler;
– how much place do we have and what storage capacity we would like to have;
– with which fuel do we want to feed the boiler;
– how do we want to fill the container;
– do we want an external or an internal container;
– how close can we place the boiler to the container;
A wood chip boiler can provide energy for small family houses and for huge energy centers as well. The installation is environment friendly, CO2 – neutral and the fuel is easy to obtain.
Let the numbers speak!
• it can burn fuel with up to 50% moisture-content
• operating efficiency up to 95% (depending on the moisture content)
• saving up to 70% during one heating season!